词汇术语表 beginning with H

Illustrated glossary of morphological and biological terms
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H

hairs

In Antkey, hairs are generally either referred to as erect hairs or pubescence. Used for both generic and species level diagnosis.

hairs absent (Linepithema)

Erect hairs are absent on cephalic dorsum (above eye level), gastral tergites 1 and 2, and are often also present on the pronotum. Used in Antkey to separate Linepithema humile from Linepithema iniquum.

hairs extremely abundant (Tetramorium)

The entire body is covered in a dense pelt of long, flexuous hairs, many of which are bifid. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium lanuginosum from other Tetramorium species.

hairs fine and flexuous (Camponotus)

The erect hairs are long, fine and flexuous. They tend to bend anteriorly on the mesosoma and head, and posteriorly on the gaster. Used in Antkey to separate Camponotus atriceps from Camponotus planatus

hairs longer and more flexuous (Nylanderia)

The macrosetae (or longest hairs), are long and flexuous, strongly tapering to a fine tip. Used in Antkey to separate Nylanderia fulva from Nylanderia bourbonica

hairs moderately abundant (Tetramorium)

The erect hairs are long, acuminate, flexuous and moderately abundant, but are never bifid. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium bicarinatum, Tetramorium insolens, Tetramorium caespitum cf, Tetramorium pacificum, Tetramorium tonganum and Tetramorium tsushimae from other Tetramorium species.

hairs on scape long (Camponotus)

The antennal scape has many hairs that are longer than the width of the scape. Used in Antkey to separate Camponotus atriceps from Camponotus planatus.

hairs on scape short (Camponotus)

The antennal scape lacks hairs that are longer than the width of the scape. Used in Antkey to separate Camponotus planatus Camponotus atriceps.

hairs present (Linepithema)

Erect hairs are present on cephalic dorsum (above eye level), gastral tergites 1 and 2, and are often also present on the pronotum. Used in Antkey to separate Linepithema iniquum from Linepithema humile.

hairs shorter and more blunt (Nylanderia)

The macrosetae (or longest hairs), are of moderate length, thick and stout, weakly tapering to a blunt tip. Used in Antkey to separate Nylanderia bourbonica from Nylanderia fulva.

hairs sparse, short and stubby (Tetramorium)

The erect hairs are sparse, short and stubby. They are never long and flexuous and never bifid. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium caldarium and Tetramorium simillimum from other Tetramorium species.

hairs spatulate

The hairs are rounded and broad at the tip, attenuate at base; spoon shaped (Torre-Bueno). Used in Antkey to identify the genera of Eurhopalothrix and Strumigenys.

hairs thick and stiff (Camponotus)

The erect hairs are relatively thick and stiff (as opposed to fine and flexuous) and tend to be light in color. Used in Antkey to separate Camponotus planatus from Camponotus atriceps.

hairs thick and stout (Pheidole)

The hairs on the mesosoma are stout and stiff, arranged in pairs. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole anastasii, Pheidole bilimeki and Pheidole punctatissima from Pheidole flavens and Pheidole moerens.

hairs thin and flexuous (Pheidole)

The hairs on the mesosoma are fine and flexuous, not arranged in pairs. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole flavens and Pheidole moerens from Pheidole anastasii, Pheidole bilimeki and Pheidole punctatissima.

head
head and mesosoma lacking stiff erect hairs

The head and mesosoma lack abundant short, thick and slightly flattened hairs that are light in color. If erect hairs are present, they are sparse, fine and never appearing flattened. Used in Antkey to separate Crematogaster obscurata from Crematogaster scutellaris.

head and mesosoma with stiff erect hairs

The head and mesosoma have abundant short, thick and slightly flattened hairs that are light in color. Used in Antkey to separate Crematogaster obscurata from Crematogaster scutellaris.

head approximately the same color as body and appendages

The head is approximately the same color as the body and appendages. There may be some variation in color, but there is never a dark brown head that contrasts strongly with pale yellowish body and appendages. Used in Antkey to separate other species of Dolichoderinae from Tapinoma melanocephalum.

head bicolorous (Pheidole)

The head is bicolored with the yellowish posterior two-thirds contrasting with the darker brown anterior third and rest of body. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole punctatissima from Pheidole anastasii and Pheidole bilimeki.

head circular

The head is circular, with the head width approximately equal to the head width. Used in Antkey to separate Plagiolepis from Camponotus.

head concolorous (Pheidole)

The head is uniform in color, not contrasting sharply with rest of body. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole anastasii and Pheidole bilimeki from Pheidole punctatissima.

head covered by hexagonal microsculpture (Atta)

The head and body appear dull and are covered by hexagonal microsculpture. Used in Antkey to separate Atta sexdens from Atta cephalotes.

head covered in woolly hairs

The head of the soldier appearing woolly, covered in abundant long fine overlapping hairs. Used in Antkey to separate Atta cephalotes from Atta sexdens.

head distinctly darker than body and appendages

The head is a dark brown that contrasts strongly with the pale yellowish body and appendages. Used in Antkey to separate Tapinoma melanocephalum from other species of Dolichoderinae.

head finely striate (Odontomachus)

Head with very thin subparallel striae. Present in both O. simillimus and O. ruginodis.

head heart shaped (Pheidole)

The head of the soldier is somewhat heart-shaped with the evenly rounded posterolateral lobes bulging laterally and the head attenuating anteriorly. Used in Antkey to separate majors of Pheidole megacephala from other majors of other Pheidole.

head length

The maximum distance from the mid-point of the anterior clypeal margin to the midpoint of the posterior margin of head, measured in full-face view. Impressions on anterior clypeal margin and posterior head margin do not reduce head
length.

head not covered in woolly hairs

The head of soldier with sparse amount of short and blunt hairs, few of which overlap. Used in Antkey to separate Atta sexdens from Atta cephalotes

head ovoid

The head is ovoid with the head width distinctly greater than head width. Used in Antkey to separate Camponotus from Plagiolepis.

head punctate (Pheidole minor)

The head is covered in punctate microsculpture, giving it a dull appearance. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole species.

head shape
head shape ovoid to subquadrate (Myrmicinae)

The head is ovoid to subquadrate, but it never has a triangular shape in which the posterior margin is very broad and the lateral margins converge towards a very narrow anterior margin. Used in Antkey to separate all other myrmicine genera from Eurhopalothrix and Strumigenys.

head shape rectangular (Pheidole)

The head length is weakly longer than head width. Used in Antkey to separate majors of Pheidole fervens from those of Pheidole teneriffana.

head shape triangular (Myrmicinae)

The head shape is approximately triangular, with the posterior margin distinctly broader than the anterior margin. Used in Antkey to separate myrmicine genera.

head smooth and shining (Pheidole minor)

The head is smooth and shining, lacking punctation. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole species.

head smooth and shiny, not covered by hexagonal microsculpture (Atta)

The head smooth and shiny, not covered by hexagonal microsculpture. Used in Antkey to separate Atta cephalotes from Atta sexdens.

head square (HW=HL) (Pheidole)

The head length is approximately equal to the head with. Used in Antkey to separate the major worker of Pheidole teneriffana from that of Pheidole fervens.

head subquadrate (Pheidole minor)

The head is subquadrate, weakly longer than wide, and with a more flat posterior margin. Used in Antkey to separate the minor worker of Pheidole teneriffana from that of Pheidole fervens and Pheidole obscurithorax.

head width (measurement)

The width of head directly behind the eyes measured in full-face view.

head width 2

Measure of the maximum cephalic width across the eyes. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium caespitum cf from Tetramorium tsushimae.

hind and middle coxae distinctly paler than the mesosoma

The middle and hind coxae are pale white, contrasting with dark mesosoma. Used in Antkey to separate Nylanderia steinheili from Nylanderia bourbonica and Nylanderia fulva.

hind and middle coxae same color as mesosoma

The middle and hind coxae are same color as mesosoma, not a strongly contrasting pale white. Used in Antkey to separate Nylanderia bourbonica and Nylanderia fulva from Nylanderia steinheili.

hind coxae with dorsal spine

The hind coxae armed with dorsal spine. Used in Antkey to separate Gnamptogenys from all other genera.

hind coxae without dorsal spine

The hind coxae not armed with dorsal spine. Used in Antkey to separate all other genera from Gnamptogenys.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith