Antkey

ID guide | introduced ants

Glosarium dimulai dengan P

Illustrated glossary of morphological and biological terms
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P

pair of small tubercles lacking on cephalic dorsum anterior to posterolateral spines.

The head anterior to the posterolateral spines is smooth and not interrupted by a pair of small teeth or blunt angles. Used in Antkey to separate Atta cephalotes from Atta sexdens. This is a variable character, and should be used with caution until its usefulness is confirmed.

pair of small tubercles on cephalic dorsum anterior to posterolateral spines

The head has a pair of small teeth or blunt angles anterior to the posterolateral spines. Used in Antkey to separate Atta sexdens from Atta cephalotes. This is a variable character, and should be used with caution until its usefulness is confirmed.

pectinate

With many fine teeth, comb-like.

petiolar node appears flattened

The petiole appears flattened and lacks a distinction between the peduncle and the node. Used in Antkey to separate Crematogaster from many other myrmicine genera.

petiolar node armed with apical spine

The petiolar node is armed with a apical single, weakly posteriorly protecting spine. Used in Antkey to separate Odontomachus simillimus and Odontomachus ruginodis from Anochetus mayri.

petiolar node bicuspidate

The petiolar node is excised medially to form a pair of dorsolateral spines.

petiolar node evenly rounded

The petiolar node is evenly rounded, with the anterior and posterior faces both approximating similar curves. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium tonganum and Tetramorium lanuginosum from all other Tetramorium.

petiolar node not flattened

The petiole has a clearly separate and distinct peduncle and node. Used in Antkey to separate from many myrmicine genera from Crematogaster.

petiolar node square shaped (Tetramorium)

The petiolar node is square shaped, with discrete and nearly flat anterior, dorsal and posterior faces. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium bicarinatum, Tetramorium caldarium, Tetramorium caespitum cf, Tetramorium simillimum and Tetramorium tsushimae from all other Tetramorium.

petiolar node thick (Tetramorium simillimum)

The petiolar node is relatively thick in profile. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium simillimum from Tetramorium caldarium. The character, as it is presently defined, is ambiguous and requires a more detailed examination before its usefulness is confirmed.

petiolar node thin (Tetramorium caldarium)

The petiolar node is relatively thin in profile. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium caldarium from Tetramorium simillimum. The character, as it is presently defined, is ambiguous and requires a more detailed examination before its usefulness is confirmed.

petiolar node wave shaped (Tetramorium)

The petiolar node consists of an anterior and dorsal face that are nearly fused into a single curve that reaches it highest point just before sharply cornering into the nearly flat posterior face. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium insolens and Tetramorium pacificum from all other Tetramorium species.

petiolar node width

The maximum width of the petiole node in dorsal view

petiolar node with convex dorsal face (Crematogaster)

The petiolar node has a convex dorsal face and the dorsal profile slopes anteriorly. In Antkey used to separate Crematogaster obscurata from Crematogaster scutellaris.

petiolar node with flat to concave dorsal face (Crematogaster)

The petiolar node has a flat to concave dorsal face. In Antkey used to separate Crematogaster scutellaris from Crematogaster obscurata.

petiolar peduncle long and does not taper gradually into node (Cardiocondyla)

The petiolar peduncle is long (length distinctly twice or more than height) and does not taper gradually into node. Used in Antkey to separate Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi, Cardiocondyla mauritanica and Cardiocondyla venustula from Cardiocondyla minutior, Cardiocondyla obscurior and Cardiocondyla wroughtonii.

petiolar peduncle short and tapering gradually into node (Cardiocondyla)

The petiolar peduncle does not appearing long (length not twice height), and thickens gradually as it tapers into node. Used in Antkey to separate Cardiocondyla minutior, Cardiocondyla obscurior and Cardiocondyla wroughtonii from Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi, Cardiocondyla mauritanica and Cardiocondyla venustula.

petiolar peduncle thick (Tetramorium simillimum)

The petiolar peduncle is relatively thick in profile. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium simillimum from Tetramorium caldarium. The character, as it is presently defined, is ambiguous and requires a more detailed examination before its usefulness is confirmed.

petiolar peduncle thin (Tetramorium caldarium)

The petiolar peduncle is relatively thin in profile. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium caldarium from Tetramorium simillimum. The character, as it is presently defined, is ambiguous and requires a more detailed examination before its usefulness is confirmed.

petiole

The waist segment separating the mesosoma from either the gaster or the postpetiole.

petiole (Gnamptogenys porcata)

The petiolar node tall and narrow and the subpetiolar process narrow with a blunt posterior angle and lacking a distinct anterior angle. Used in Antkey to separate Gnamptogenys porcata from Gnamptogenys triangularis.

petiole (Gnamptogenys triangularis)

The petiolar node relatively quadrate and subpetiolar process broad in profile with a blunt anterior angle and an acute posterior angle. Used in Antkey to separate Gnamptogenys triangularis from Gnamptogenys porcata.

petiole and postpetiole strongly sculptured

The petiole and postpetiole are covered on all surfaces by a punctate ground sculpture, giving them dull appearances. Used in Antkey to separate the minor worker of Pheidole obsurithorax from that of Pheidole fervens.

petiole and postpetiole weakly sculptured

The lateral portions of petiole and postpetiole are weakly sculptured to lacking sculpture, giving them a shiny appearance. Used in Antkey to separate the minor worker of Pheidole fervens from that of Pheidole obscurithorax.

petiole appearing flattened

The petiolar node greatly reduced or absent, the anterior face absent or at most indistinct. Used in Antkey to separate Brachymyrmex, Tapinoma and Technomyrmex from various other genera in Dolichoderinae and Formicinae.

petiole broadly attached to gaster

The petiole is broadly attached to gaster and lacks a posterior face. Used in Antkey to separate Amblyoponinae from all other subfamilies.

petiole flattened
petiole hidden by gaster

The petiole, or most of the petiole, may occasionally be obscured by the gaster. This condition is often the case for species of Brachymyrmex, Nylanderia, Tapinoma and Technomyrmex (all of which have a single waist segment). Used in Antkey to separate the aforementioned genera from all others.

petiole lacking apical spine

The petiole may be tapered apically, but does not form a distinct thin and sharp spine on its dorsal surface. Used in Antkey to distinguish various Ponerine genera from Odontomachus.

petiole lacking large subpetiolar process

The petiole lacks a large, well developed subpetiolar process. The process would be situated at the anterior portion of the petiole, and would be difficult to see unless a clear view is obtained. Used in Antkey to separate various other myrmicine genera from Vollenhovia .

petiole lacking spongiform

Spongiform is attached to at least some portion of waist. Used in Antkey to separate Strumigenys from Cyphomyrmex and Eurhopalothrix.

petiole length approximately equal to petiole height (Monomorium)

The petiole, in profile, is approximately as tall as it is long. The length is measured from the most anterior section of the petiolar peduncle to the most posterior section of the petiolar node, and the height is measured from the apex of the petiolar node to its ventral margin. Used in Antkey to separate Monomorium liliuokalanii from Monomorium ebeninum and Monomorium floricola.

petiole length greater than petiole height (Monomorium)

The petiole, in profile, is distinctly longer than it is tall. The length is measured from the most anterior section of the petiolar peduncle to the most posterior section of the petiolar node, and the height is measured from the apex of the petiolar node to its ventral margin. Used in Antkey to separate Monomorium ebeninum and Monomorium floricola from Monomorium liliuokalanii.

petiole narrowly attached to gaster

The petiole is attached to the gaster by a narrow attenuation and always has a conspicuous posterior face. Used in Antkey to separate all other subfamilies from Amblyoponinae.

Petiole node height (PeH)

The vertical height of the petiole measured in profile from the lowest point of the subpetiolar process to a line that intersects the highest point of the dorsal outline (Bolton & Fisher 2011).

Petiole node length (PeNL)

In profile, the maximum length of the petiole node, measured in a straight horizontal
line from immediately above the dorsal base of the anterior petiolar tubercle to the posterior margin (Bolton & Fisher 2011).

petiole rectangular with concave posterior face

The petiole is apedunculate and approximately as tall and it is long in profile view. The posterior face is weakly but distinctly concave. Used in Antkey to separate Platythyrea parallela from other ponerine species.

petiole short and broad with strongly reduced subpetiolar process (Hypoponera)

The petiole is subtriangular, relatively short and broad with distinctly convex anterior and posterior faces. The subpetiolar process is reduced to a small convexity that weakly breaks the outline of the ventral margin. Used in Antkey to separate Hypoponera zwaluwenburgi from Hypoponera opaciceps, Hypoponera punctatissima and Hypoponera ragusai.

petiole tall and narrow with strongly convex subpetiolar process (Hypoponera)

The petiole is subrectangular, relatively tall and narrow and with a nearly flat anterior face. The subpetiolar process is well developed and strongly convex. Used in Antkey to separate Hypoponera opaciceps, Hypoponera punctatissima and Hypoponera ragusai from Hypoponera zwaluwenburgi.

petiole upright

The petiolar node present and with distinct anterior and posterior faces. Used in Antkey to separate various genera in Dolichoderinae and Formicinae from Brachymyrmex, Tapinoma and Technomyrmex.

petiole wedge-shaped

The petiole is distinctly taller than long in profile, and the posterior face is flat to convex, but never concave. Used in Antkey to separate other ponerine species from Platythyrea parallela.

petiole with large subpetiolar process

The petiole has a large, well developed subpetiolar process. The process is at the anterior portion of the petiole, and may be difficult to see unless a clear view is obtained. Used in Antkey to separate Vollenhovia from various other myrmicine genera.

polydomous

When a single colony inhabits multiple nests.

polygynous

Multiple reproductive queens present in a single colony.

polymorphic

Refers to a worker caste which shows a large, continuous range in size from small to large workers.

posterior

Hinder or hindmost, opposed to anterior; hind or rear.

posterior head margin distinctly convex (Plagiolepis)

The posterior margin of the head is distinctly convex. Used in Antkey to separate Plagiolepis alluaudi and Plagiolepis pygmaea from Plagiolepis exigua.

posterior head margin flat (Pheidole minor)

The posterior margin of the head flat. Used in Antkey to separate the minor worker of Pheidole teneriffana from Pheidole obscurithorax (strongly convex) and Pheidole fervens (weakly convex).

posterior head margin flat (Tetramorium simillimum)

The posterior margin of the head is generally flat and lacks a median impression. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium simillimum from Tetramorium caldarium. This character is based on examination of limited material, however, and requires further study before its usefulness can be verified.

posterior head margin flat to weakly concave

The posterior margin of the head weakly concave to flat, but never strongly convex. Used in Antkey to separate Plagiolepis exigua from Plagiolepis alluaudi and Plagiolepis pygmaea.

posterior head margin flatter

The posterior margin of the head generally flat and broad before arching towards eyes. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole bilimeki from Pheidole anastasii and Pheidole

posterior head margin impressed (Tetramorium caldarium)

The posterior margin of the head is weakly impressed medially. Used in Antkey to separate Tetramorium caldarium from Tetramorium simillimum. This character is based on examination of limited material, however, and requires further study before its usefulness can be verified.

posterior head margin interrupted by median groove

The posterior head margin is interrupted by a median groove. Used in Antkey to separate Odontomachus from Anochetus.

posterior head margin not interrupted by median groove

The posterior head margin is interrupted by a median groove. Used in Antkey to separate Anochetus from Odontomachus.

posterior head margin rounder

The posterior margin of the head generally convex and narrow before arching towards the eyes. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole punctatissima from Pheidole bilimeki and Pheidole anastasii.

posterior head margin strongly convex (Pheidole minor)

The posterior margin of the head is strongly convex and arching strongly towards the eyes. Used in Antkey to separate the minor worker of Pheidole obscurithorax from Pheidole teneriffana (flat margin) and Pheidole fervens (weakly convex).

posterior head margin weakly convex (Pheidole minor)

The posterior margin of the head weakly convex. Used in Antkey to separate the minor worker of Pheidole fervens from Pheidole obscurithorax (strongly convex) and Pheidole teneriffana (flat).

posterior third of cephalic dorsum lacking sculpture

The posterior third of cephalic dorsum smooth and shining with at most a few short interrupted carinae. Used in Antkey to separate major workers of Pheidole megacephala from those of other Pheidole species.

posterior third of cephalic dorsum with sculpture

The posterior third of cephalic dorsum distinctly sculptured either with punctures or carinae, but never smooth and shining. Used in Antkey to separate major workers of various Pheidole species from Pheidole megacephala.

posterolateral

Toward the rear and side.

posterolateral corners of head lacking spines

The posterolateral corners of the head are unarmed and lack distinct posteriorly projecting spines. Used in Antkey to separate all other myrmicine genera from Acromyrmex and Atta.

posterolateral corners of head spinose

The posterolateral corners of the head are armed with distinct posteriorly projecting spines. Used in Antkey to separate Acromyrmex and Atta from all other myrmicine genera.

posterolateral lobes punctate

The posterolateral lobes with a distinct punctate ground sculpture, giving the head a dull appearance, and also lacking rugae. Used in Antkey to separate the major workers of Pheidole anastasii, Pheidole bilimeki and Pheidole punctatissima from those of all other Pheidole species.

posterolateral lobes rugose

The posterolateral lobes distinctly rugose and the lack of a punctate ground sculpture gives the head a shiny appearance. Used in Antkey to separate the major workers of Pheidole fervens, Pheidole flavens, Pheidole moerens, Pheidole obscurior and Pheidole teneriffana from those of all other Pheidole species.

posterolateral portion of cephalic dorsum lacking sculpture

The posterolateral portion of cephalic dorsum smooth and shining, lacking any type of distinct sculpture. Best viewed in profile. Used in Antkey to separate the majors of Pheidole flavens and Pheidole moerens from those of Pheidole fervens and Pheidole teneriffana.

posterolateral portion of cephalic dorsum with sculpture

The posterolateral portion of cephalic dorsum sculptured with punctures, rugae or some combination, but never smooth and shining. Best viewed in profile. Used in Antkey to separate the majors of Pheidole fervens and Pheidole teneriffana from those of Pheidole flavens and Pheidole moerens.

postpetiole

The waist segment between the petiole and the gaster. Not present in all ants.

postpetiole appearing swollen (Pheidole)

The postpetiole of the major and minor worker is distinctly larger in volume than the petiole. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole megacephala fromPheidole fervens, Pheidole obscurithorax and Pheidole teneriffana.

postpetiole as high as petiole (Cardiocondyla)

The postpetiole, in profile view, is as high as petiole and with a distinct ventral bulge. Used in Antkey to separate Cardiocondyla emeryi, Cardiocondyla obscurior and Cardiocondyla wroughtonii from all other Cardiocondyla species.

postpetiole attached to lower surface of gaster

The postpetiole is attached to the lower surface of the gaster. Used in Antkey to separate all other myrmicine genera from Crematogaster.

postpetiole attached to upper surface of gaster

The postpetiole is attached to the upper surface of the gaster. Used in Antkey to separate Crematogaster from all other myrmicine genera.

postpetiole hexagonal in dorsal view

In dorsal view, the sides of the postpetiole are angulate giving the postpetiolar disc a hexagonal appearance. Used in Antkey to separate Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi and Cardiocondyla mauritanica from Cardiocondyla venustula.

postpetiole lacking well developed spongiform

The postpetiole lacking distinct spongiform. Used in Antkey to separate Strumigenys eggersi and Strumigenys margaritae from other Strumigenys species.

postpetiole lower than petiole (Cardiocondyla)

The postpetiole, in profile view, is as high as petiole and with a distinct ventral bulge. Used in Antkey to separate Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi, Cardiocondyla mauritanica and Cardiocondyla venustula from all other Cardiocondyla species.

postpetiole not appearing swollen (Pheidole)

The postpetiole of the major and minor worker is not distinctly larger in volume than the petiole. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole fervens, Pheidole obscurithorax and Pheidole teneriffana from Pheidole megacephala.

postpetiole not swollen (Myrmicinae)

In dorsal view, the postpetiole not appearing swollen, not wider than long and not conspicuously broader than the petiole. Used in Antkey to separate various myrmicine genera from Cardiocondyla.

postpetiole rounded in dorsal view

In dorsal view, the sides of the postpetiole are rounded, giving the postpetiolar disc a more ovoid than hexagonal appearance. Used in Antkey to separate Cardiocondyla venustula from Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi and Cardiocondyla mauritanica.

postpetiole swollen (Myrmicinae)

In dorsal view, the postpetiole appearing swollen, wider than long and conspicuously broader than the petiole. Used in Antkey to separate Cardiocondyla from various myrmicine genera.

postpetiole with well developed spongiform

The postpetiole with distinct spongiform. Used in Antkey to separate Strumigenys gundlachi, Strumigenys hexamera and Strumigenys membranifera from other Strumigenys species.

pretarsal claw
pretarsal claw lacking subapical tooth

The pretarsal claws are simple, not pectinate, and lack any preapical teeth. Used in Antkey to separate various Ponerine genera from Gnamptogenys. Leptogenys has pectinante pretarsal claws.

pretarsal claw with subapical tooth

Pretarsal claws are simple, not pectinate, but also have a preapical tooth. Used in Antkey to separate Gnamptogenys from various Ponerine genera. Leptogenys has pectinante pretarsal claws.

pretarsal claws pectinate

The pretarsal claws are pectinate. Requires high-magnification for accurate assessment. Used in Antkey to separate Leptogenys from all other ponerine genera.

pretarsal claws simple

The pretarsal claws are simple, not pectinate. Requires high-magnification for accurate assessment. Used in Antkey to separate all other ponerine genera from Leptogenys.

promesonotum composed of one distinct convexity

The promesonotum is composed of one, not two, distinct convexities. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole flavens and Pheidole moerens from Pheidole fervens and Pheidole teneriffana.

promesonotum composed of two distinct convexity

The promesonotal profile is composed of two, not one, distinct convexities. Used in Antkey to separate Pheidole fervens and Pheidole teneriffana from Pheidole flavens and Pheidole moerens.

promesonotum with three pair of pronotal spines or teeth

The promesonotum is armed with at least three pairs of spines and teeth. Usually the anterior pairs are large and robust, and the posterior pair is smaller. Used in Antkey to separate Acromyrmex from Atta.

promesonotum with two pairs of spines or teeth

The promesonotum armed with two pair of spines or teeth. Usually the anterior pair is large and robust, and the posterior pair is smaller. Used in Antkey to separate Atta from Acromyrmex.

pronotal spines

Distinct spines attached to the dorsal surface of the pronotum.

pronotal spines absent

The pronotum or promesonotum lacking spines or teeth. At most it is armed with blunted humeral angles. Used in Antkey to separate all other myrmicine genera from Atta and Acromyrmex.

pronotal spines not strongly arching anteriorly

The pronotal spines are straight, or weakly arching anteriorly. This character may be informative for separating Atta sexdens from Atta cephalotes, but attine pronotal spines show considerable infraspecific variation and this character may well prove unreliable, and thus must be used with caution.

pronotal spines present

The pronotum or promesonotum armed with 1-3 pairs of spines or teeth. Used in Antkey to separate Atta and Acromyrmex from all other myrmicine genera.

pronotal spines strongly arch anteriorly

The pronotal spines are strongly arching anteriorly. This character may be informative for separating Atta cephalotes from Atta sexdens, but attine pronotal spines show considerable infraspecific variation and this character may well prove unreliable, and thus must be used with caution.

pronotum with 1 pair of hairs (Technomyrmex)

The pronotum with one pair of erect hairs that differ from the appressed pilosity. Used in Antkey to separate Technomyrmex difficilis, Technomyrmex vitiensis, and Technomyrmex pallipes from Technomyrmex albipes. Technomyrmex pallipes can have 1-3 pairs of erect hairs on the pronotum. This character should be used with some caution because these hairs can be easily rubbed off prior to examination.

pronotum with 2 pairs of hairs (Technomyrmex)

The pronotum with one pair of erect hairs that differ from the appressed pilosity. Used in Antkey to separate Technomyrmex albipes and some specimens of Technomyrmex pallipes from Technomyrmex vitiensis and Technomyrmex difficilis. Technomyrmex pallipes can have 1-3 pairs of erect hairs on the pronotum. This character should be used with some caution because these hairs can be easily rubbed off prior to examination.

pronotum with 3 pairs of erect hairs (Technomyrmex)

The pronotum with three pairs of erect hairs that differ from the appressed pilosity. Used in Antkey to separate some specimens of Technomyrmex pallipes from Technomyrmex albipes, Technomyrmex difficilis and Technomyrmex vitiensis. Technomyrmex pallipes can have 1-3 pairs of erect hairs on the pronotum. This character should be used with some caution because these hairs can be easily rubbed off prior to examination.

propodeal
propodeal declivity greater than twice length of propodeal dorsum

The propodeal declivity is at least twice length of propodeal dorsum. Used in Antkey to separate Lasius from Anoplolepis and Formica.

propodeal declivity less than twice length of propodeal dorsum

The propodeal declivity is less than twice length of propodeal dorsum. Used in Antkey to separate Anoplolepis and Formica from Lasius.

propodeal spine length 1

Propodeal spine length measured as a straight line from the center of the propodeal spiracle to the tip of the propodeal spine.

propodeal spines

Spines attached to the posterodoral surface of the propodeum.

propodeal spines long (Tetramorium)

The propodeal spines are well developed, long and spinose. Used in Antkey to separate species of Tetramorium.

propodeal spines short (Tetramorium)

The propodeum spines are short, weakly developed and more closely resemble teeth or angles than long, well developed spines. Used in Antkey to separate species of Tetramorium.

propodeal spiracle not on posterior border of propodeum

The propodeal spiracle is distinctly anterior to posterior margin of the propodeum. Used in Antkey to separate Linepithema iniquum from Linepithema humile.

propodeal spiracle on posterior border of propodeum

The propodeal spiracle is bordering posterior margin of the propodeum. Used in Antkey to separate Linepithema humile from Linepithema iniquum.

propodeal teeth absent (Gnamptogenys)

The propodeum is entirely unarmed, completely lacking even small angles or teeth. Used in Antkey to separate Gnamptogenys porcata from Gnamptogenys triangularis.

propodeal teeth present (Gnamptogenys)

The propodeum is armed with small teeth or denticles. Used in Antkey to separate Gnamptogenys triangularis from Gnamptogenys porcata.

propodeum

The posterior portion of the mesosoma, anterior to the waist.

propodeum and petiolar node armed with a pair of teeth

The propodeum and petiolar node both armed with a pair of short teeth. Used in Antkey to separate Dolichoderus thoracicus from other species of Dolichoderinae and Formicinae.

propodeum and petiolar node unarmed

The propodeum and petiolar node both lacking a pair of short teeth. Used in Antkey to separate various species of Dolichoderinae and Formicinae from Dolichoderus thoracicus.

propodeum angular (Camponotus)

The propodeum is angulate and has a distinct dorsal and posterior face. Used in Antkey to separate Camponotus rectangularis from Camponotus atriceps, Camponotus sexguttatus and Camponotus variegatus.

propodeum angular (Linepithema)

The propodeum is angular, with flat to weakly convex dorsal and posterior faces. Used in Antkey to separate Linepithema humile from Linepithema iniquum.

propodeum armed with spines (Myrmicinae)

The propodeum armed with a pair of angles, teeth, or spines. Used in Antkey to distinguish among various genera of Myrmicinae.

propodeum evenly rounded (Camponotus)

The propodeum is not angulate and lacks a distinct dorsal and posterior face. Used in Antkey to separate Camponotus variegatus from Camponotus rectangularis from Camponotus atriceps, Camponotus sexguttatus.

propodeum globular (Linepithema)

The propodeum is strongly rounded, uniformly convex and resembling a sphere in profile. Used in Antkey to separate Linepithema iniquum from Linepithema humile.

propodeum not armed with spines (Myrmicinae)

The propodeum unarmed, entirely lacking angles, teeth, or spines. Used in Antkey to distinguish among various genera of Myrmicinae.

propodeum with dorsal surface not shorter than posterior face

The dorsal face of the propodeum is either longer or approximately equal to the posterior face, but never distinctly shorter. Used in Antkey to separate Linepithema and Iridomyrmex from Tapinoma and Technomyrmex .

propodeum with dorsal surface shorter than posterior face

The dorsal face of the propodeum is distinctly shorter than posterior face. Used in Antkey to separate Tapinoma and Technomyrmex from Linepithema and Iridomyrmex.

propodeum with one pair of erect hairs (Technomyrmex)

The propodeal declivity has a single pair of erect hairs. Used in Antkey to separate Technomyrmex vitiensis from Technomyrmex albipes, Technomyrmex difficilis and Technomyrmex pallipes.

propodeum with posterior protrusion and concave declivity

The propodeum forms a posteriorly projecting protrusion which causes the propodeal declivity to be concave. Used in Antkey to separate species in the Ochetellus glaber complex from various species of dolichoderines and formicines.

propodeum with three pairs of hairs (Technomyrmex)

The propodeal declivity has three pairs of erect hairs. Used in Antkey to separate some specimens of Technomyrmex pallipes from Technomyrmex albipes, Technomyrmex difficilis and Technomyrmex vitiensis. Technomyrmex pallipes has 2-3 hairs on the propodeum.

propodeum with two pair of erect (Technomyrmex)

The propodeal declivity has two pairs of erect hairs. Used in Antkey to separate Technomyrmex albipes, Technomyrmex difficilis and some specimens of Technomyrmex pallipes from Technomyrmex vitiensis. Technomyrmex pallipes has 2-3 hairs on the propodeum.

propodeum without posterior protrusion and concave declivity

The propodeum may be strongly convex, but it never forms a posteriorly projecting protrusion, and the declivity is convex to flat, but never concave. Used in Antkey to separate various species of dolichoderines and formicines from the Ochetellus glaber complex.

pubescence

Short, appressed hairs that appear as a soft down and make the surface look dull.

pubescence dense on posteromedian portion of head

The posteromedian portion of the head is covered in pubescence, such that the space between hairs is often less than the length of the hairs. Used in Antkey to separate Nylanderia flavipes from Nylanderia terricola and Nylanderia vividula.

pubescence sparse on posteromedian portion of head

The posteromedian portion of the head has only sparse pubescence, such that the space between hairs is often much greater than the length of the hairs. Used in Antkey to separate Nylanderia terricola and Nylanderia vividula from Nylanderia flavipes.

punctate

Surface sculpture characterized by small shallow punctures, as if covered in pin pricks.

pygidium armed

The upper surface (tergite) of the last segment of the gaster generally flat and armed with a row of very small teeth. This character can be difficult to observe and requires high magnification. Used in Antkey to separate Cerapachys from other subfamilies.

pygidium unarmed

The upper surface (tergite) of the last segment of the gaster convex and not armed with a row of very small teeth. This character can be difficult to observe and requires high magnification. Used in Antkey to separate other subfamilies from Cerapachys.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith