Pheidole vigilans is a large, light colored, glossy species native to Australia and introduced in New Zealand. The species belongs to an Old World clade centered in Australia. The glossy head of the majors and minors give it a superficial appearance to P. megacephala, but it is substantially larger than that species. Additionally, the postpetiole of P. proxima is not swollen relative to the petiole as in P. megacephala, and the head of the major is subquadrate, while that of P. megacephala is more heart-shaped. Readers are referred to the section under P. proxima and P. rugosula for a discussion of how to differentiate it from the other Pheidole species established in New Zealand. Additional taxonomy of these species is discussed in (Berry et al. 1997). Within Australia, there are many taxa similar to P. vigilans and its close relative P. ampla Forel. However, a revision of that fauna is required before it can be reliably diagnosed there.