Hypoponera zwaluwenburgi is a small (2–2.3 mm) brownish yellow species with short antennal scapes, no eyes, a short subtriangular petiole, and a strongly reduced subpetiolar process. The species was originally described from eleven specimens taken by Mr. R. H. Van Zwaluwenburg at Waimalo, Waialua, and Waipio on Oahu Island, and also on Maui Island (Wheeler, 1933b). They were collected from below the surface in the soil of both cultivated and fallow sugar-cane fields. Despite the multiple distributions reported from the original description, and the apparently large amount of suitable habitat, the species has not been collected in Hawaii since 1967 (Krushelnycky et al., 2005). The only other record of the species is from Okinawa, Japan (Imai et al., 2003).