Solenopsis papuana is a minute reddish species. Despite its very small size the species will recruit strongly to food resources and can easily dominate them given enough time with their venomous stings. The species is not reported to sting humans, however. Solenopsis papuana is easily differentiated in the field from Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis geminata by its much smaller size and its monomorphic (versus polymorphic) worker caste. It tends to nest and forage in soil and leaf litter.