ID guide | introduced ants


Web resources for invasive ant surveillance and management

Delimiting Surveys for Invasive Ants | Document detailing survey protocols, surveillance methods, specimen preparation, and baiting information for many species of invasive ants. The document was prepared for work in New Zealand, but is useful for other regions as well. Fire Ant page | Information about Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) control, management, biology, education, outreach and other resources.

Global Invasive Species Database (ISSG) | Information about the ecology, distribution, impacts, management, references, links and contacts for invasive species. The provided link returns a list of all ant species (family Formicidae) included in the ISSG database.

Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) | Website with sections on the prevention of new ant invasions, eradication of invasive ants, and control methods for invasive ants. Site also contains links to scientific papers, management documents and additional resources.

A Bioeconomic Model of Little Fire Ant Wasmannia auropunctata in Hawaii | Comprehensive report on the history, impacts, management and bioeconomic modeling of LFA in Hawaii.

Maunakea Invasive Species Management PlanThe Maunakea Invasive Species Management Plan documents the objectives, policies and procedures of the Office of Mauna Kea Management for the prevention, detection and management of invasive plant and animal species on lands managed by the University of Hawai‘i on Maunakea.

Pacific Invasive Ant Toolkit (PIAT) | The Pacific Invasive Ant Toolkit is a collection of resources to help prevent and control invasive ants in the Pacific. The PIAT is mostly targeted at helping developing and remote Pacific Nations, who often do not have access to pest control locally and depend on outside help. But anyone is welcome to use it.

Selected Invasive Ant Management Publications (see Hoffmann et al. 2010 for overview)

  • Abedrabbo, S. (1994) Control of the little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata on Santa Fe Island in the Galapagos Islands. In: D. F. Williams (Ed), Exotic ants: Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. 332 p., pp. 219-227.
  • Anon. (2006) Background document for the threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories. In. Commonwealth of Australia, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.  43 p.
  • Antony, G., Scanlan, J., Francis, A., Kloessing, K. & Nguyen, Y. (2009) Revised benefits and costs of eradicating the red imported fire ant. In. No 48151, 2009 Conference (53rd), February 11-13, 2009, Cairns, Australia, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  • Apperson, C. S., Leidy, R. B. & Powell, E. E. (1984) Effects of Amdro on the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and some nontarget ant species and persistence of Amdro on a pasture habitat in North Carolina. J. Econ. Entomol., 77, 1012-1018.
  • Banks, W. A. & Lofgren, C. S. (1991) Effectiveness of the insect growth regulator Pyriproxyfen against the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Entomol. Sci., 26, 331-338.
  • Banks, W. A., Miles, L. R. & Harlan, D. P. (1983) The effects of insect growth regulators and their potential as control agents for imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol., 66, 172-181.
  • Causton, C. E., Sevilla, C. R. & Porter, S. D. (2005) Eradication of the little fire ant; Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), from Marchena Island, Galápagos: on the edge of success? Florida Entomol., 88, 159-168.
  • Daane, K. M., Sime, K. R., Hogg, B. N., Bianchi, M. L., Cooper, M. L., Rust, M. K., et al. (2006) Effects of liquid insecticide baits on Argentine ants in California's coastal vineyards. Crop Prot., 25, 592-603.
  • Forte, P. N. & Greaves, T. (1956) The effectiveness of dieldrin for the control of the Argentine ant in Western Australia. J. Agr. West. Austr., 5, 85-96.
  • Graham, L. C., Porter, S. D., Pereira, R. M., Dorough, H. D. & Kelley, A. T. (2003) Field releases of the decapitating fly Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) for control of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Alabama, Florida, and Tennessee. Florida Entomol., 86, 334-339.
  • Greenberg, L., Klotz, J. H. & Rust, M. K. (2006) Liquid borate bait for control of the argentine ant, Linepithema humile, in organic citrus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol., 89, 469-474.
  • Gutrich, J. J., VanGelder, E. & Loope, L. (2007) Potential economic impact of introduction and spread of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Hawaii. Environmental Science and Policy, 10, 685-696.
  • Hoffmann, B. D. & O'Connor, S. (2004) Eradication of two exotic ants from Kakadu National Park. Ecol. Manage. Restor., 5, 98-105.
  • Klotz, J. H., Rust, M. K., Greenberg, L., Field, H. C. & Kupfer, K. (2007) An evaluation of several urban pest management strategies to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology, 50, 391-398.
  • Klotz, J. H., Vail, K. M. & Williams, D. F. (1997) Toxicity of a boric acid-sucrose water bait to Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 90, 488-491.
  • Krushelnycky, P. D., Loope, L. L. & Reimer, N. J. (2005) The ecology, policy, and management of ants in Hawaii. Proc. Hawaii. Entomol. Soc., 37, 1-22.
  • Krushelnycky, P. D. & Reimer, N. J. (1998) Bait preference by the Argentine ant (Hym.: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Hawaii. Environ. Entomol., 27, 1482-1487.
  • Lewis, T., Cherrett, J. M., Haines, I., Haines, J. B. & Mathias, P. L. (1976) The crazy ant (Anoplolepis longipes (Jerd.) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Seychelles, and its chemical control. Bull. Entomol. Res., 66, 97-111.
  • Lofgren, C. S., Banks, W. A. & Glancey, B. M. (1975) Biology and control of imported fire ants. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 20, 1-30.
  • Majer, J. D. & Flugge, R. (1984) The influence of spraying on Argentine (Iridomyrmex humilis) and native ants (Hymenoptera Formicidae). In. West. Aust. Inst. Tech.; School of Biology Bulletin No. 8. 23 pp.
  • Marr, R. (2003) Toxic baiting of the yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes, on Christmas Island: impacts on non-target litter invertebrates. In. BSc. (Hons.) Thesis, school of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne.
  • Mehdiabadi, N. J. & Gilbert, L. E. (2002) Colony-level impacts of parasitoid flies on fire ants. Proc. R. Soc. London B Biol. Sci., 269, 1695-1699.
  • Menke, S. B., Fisher, R. N., Jetz, W. & Holway, D. A. (2007) Biotic and abiotic controls of Argentine ant invasion success at local and landscape scales. Ecology, 88, 3164-3173.
  • Rey, S. & Espadaler, X. (2005(2004)) Area-wide management of the invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in northeast Spain. J. Agric. Urban Entomol., 21, 99-112.
  • Silverman, J. & Brightwell, R. J. (2008) The argentine ant: challenges in managing an invasive unicolonial pest. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 53, 231-252.
  • Stanley, M., Ward, D., Harris, R., Arnold, G., Toft, R. & Rees, J. (2008) Optimizing pitfall sampling for the detection of argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology, 51, 461-472.
  • Stein, M. B., Thorvilson, H. G. & Johnson, J. W. (1990) Seasonal changes in bait preference by red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol., 73, 117-123.
  • Thompson, L. C. & Zakharov, A. A. (1995) Effects of Amdro and Logic fire ant baits on non-target ants. [abstract]. In. p. 190, In: S.B. Vinson and B. M. Drees [compilers], Proceedings of the 5th International Pest Ant Symposia and 1995 Annual Imported Fire Ant Conference, San Antonio, TX, May 2-4, 1995, 217 p.
  • Tschinkel, W. R. (2006) The fire ants. In. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 747, 716 p. of plates.
  • Ulloa Chacón, P. & Cherix, D. (1994) Perspectives on control of the little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata) on the Galapagos Islands. In: D. F. Williams (Ed), Exotic ants: Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. 332 p., pp. 63-72.
  • Wagner, R. E. (1983) Effects of Amdro fire ant insecticide mound treatments on southern California ants, 1982. Insect. Acar. Tests, 8, 257.
  • Williams, D. F. & [ed.] (1994) Exotic ants. Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Williams, D. F. & Vail, K. M. (1994) Control of a natural infestation of the pharaoh ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with a corn grit bait of fenoxycarb. J. Econ. Entomol., 87, 108-115.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith